My love of research emerged well before I received my PhD in Experimental Psychology in 2004; however, it was around that time that I realized how much my passion and experience could benefit others. This is what inspired me to create Elite Research, LLC, which employs statistical and editing consultants to assist faculty, students, and anyone else who needs assistance in conducting or reporting research. For the past 9 years, my colleagues and I have helped graduate students around the world through tutoring and workshops, setting up mock dissertation defenses, or even just acting as a cheerleader or shoulder to cry on during those challenging times. My goal for PhDStudent is to provide all graduate students who are seeking support with the tools they need to survive graduate school, a time that I personally know can be demanding and exhausting. When I do get some rare time for myself, I enjoy traveling, appreciating art, and making fun of my husband, whose love for Star Wars and The Princess Bride I will never fully understand.

Rene Paulson, PhD, EzineArticles Platinum Author

References and Citations: Part 3—More Referencing Styles

References and Citations: Part 3—More Referencing Styles

As we previously discussed in Part 1 and Part 2 of this series, there are several styles of referencing.  As a recap: all reference styles tend to include similar elements: the title, author, and date, but they have different formatting conventions (i.e., the order of the elements, capitalization, etc.).  Often times, dissertation committees will ask you to use the reference style most commonly used in that discipline; however, your university may prefer the use of a different referencing system, so check with your professor or syllabus.

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References and Citations: Part 2—Referencing Styles

References and Citations: Part 2—Referencing Styles

There are several styles of referencing.  Different referencing and citation styles have developed to address the specific needs of disciplines.  All reference styles tend to include similar elements, such as the title, author, and date, but they have different formatting conventions (i.e., the order of the elements, capitalization, etc.) to those familiar with that specific style.

Publishers developed rules of style for specific manuscript structure, punctuation, graphics, and references to move an idea forward to achieve clarity of communication of that field.  It may seem like academic entities can't agree, but authors write for different purposes and different audiences, so the citation styles reflect that.  We continue to use different citation styles for two reasons: disciplinary differences and tradition. 

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Everything You Need to Know About References and Citations: Part 1

Everything You Need to Know About References and Citations: Part 1

When you conduct your research, it is important to record the details of all the information you find to provide accurate references, and to assist you or the reviewers to locate the information again later.  Many styles are used for citation referencing.  When you are given thesis or dissertation guidelines, check which style of referencing your advisor or committee asks you to use.  If you don’t check, and you use a style that is not the one stated in your guidelines, you could lose points. 

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Returning To Graduate School after Hiatus

Returning To Graduate School after Hiatus

Are you contemplating furthering your education but think too late to return to school?  Many potential students see a long hiatus from school as an obstacle to furthering their education.  You always planned to complete that master’s or doctoral degree, but life happens—career, family, obligations.  Things have changed and you’re ready to take that next step.  You want that graduate degree, but is it possible to return to graduate school after a long hiatus?

The idea of attending college as an adult after a hiatus can make anyone anxious.  Seasoned students who took time off from school often have unique academic concerns; however, making this decision doesn’t have to keep you up at night.  When you make the choice to return to graduate school, you are not alone. 

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Recommendation Letters: Who to Ask, How to Ask, and When

Recommendation Letters: Who to Ask, How to Ask, and When

If you are facing graduate school applications, it’s time to get serious about requesting references for your letters of recommendation.  Usually grades and test scores factor are most influential in a graduate school application; however, many applicants don’t realize that letters of recommendation can be the deciding factor in the admission process.  As a continuation of the previous blog, 5 Tips for Recommendation Letters, an effective letter should provide those making admissions decisions with an assessment of your potential as a graduate student.  Therefore, it is important that you ask those who know you academically to write your recommendation letters.  Professors are the ones who most commonly write letters of recommendation for graduate school applicants; however, professionals who supervised your work in academia or research may also be appropriate choices.

Although you cannot control a letter’s content, there are things you can do to make the process of getting positive letters of recommendation as successful as possible.  Who you request a letter of recommendation from, how you ask, and when you ask will influence the quality and type of recommendation you receive.

Who to Ask

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It might take a while for you to think of people who can recommend you.  This is okay.  Don’t worry too much about getting the most prestigious name you can find to recommend you for the program.  Of course, that might help bring attention to your application, but if the people who own those names don’t know you academically, professionally, or personally, then their recommendation letters will seem bland and generic.  The people who know you well academically, professionally, or personally will provide a unique and customized recommendation letter for you.  These letters are the ones you want because it will allow their readers to get an idea of who you are as a potential graduate student instead of only understanding basic knowledge about you and your achievements.

Anything other than a positive letter has the potential to harm your application.  Ideally, you want a letter from someone you’ve worked with in a classroom setting, research, volunteer work, or any other one-on-one situation.  So, avoid anyone who you think might give you a negative reference and remember that an indifferent reference can be just as bad as a negative one.  The following people make the best recommendation letter writers:

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